Summarize written text 04

Summarize written text 04


61. Rosetta Stone When the Rosetta Stone was
discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied.
Printer’s ink was applied to the Stone and white paper laid over it. When the paper was
removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text—but in reverse. Since then, many copies
or “facsimiles” have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the
Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts
to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands
eager to touch the Stone added to the problem. An opportunity for investigation and cleaning
the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes
exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the
original, ancient material the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed,
the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba
wax from the early 1800s and printer’s ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool
swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white
paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective
coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom
left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the
white infill. 62. Online learning What makes teaching online
unique is that it uses the Internet, especially the World Wide Web, as the primary means of
communication. Thus, when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach.
You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of papers or your laptop to a classroom, stand
at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard, or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students
take a test. You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show
up for conferences. You can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner.
You can do all this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok,
even if you’re working for a college whose administrative offices are located in Florida
or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in Hawaii on the same day that you teach your
class in New Jersey, longing on from your laptop via the local cafe’s wireless hot
sport or your hotel room’s high speed network. Online learning offers more freedom for students
as well. They can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even
the world fro programs, classes and instructors that fit their needs. Having found an appropriate
course, they can enrol and register, shop for their books, read articles, listen to
lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive
their final grades – all online. They can assemble in virtual classrooms, joining other
students from diverse geographical locales, forging bond and friendships not possible
in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students from a specific geographical
area. 63. American English American English is,
without doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There
are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation
on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction between
a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said,
a language is a dialect with an army. Second, America’s political influence is extended
through American popular culture, in particular through the international reach of American
films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, the internationally dominant
position of a culture results in a forceful expansion of its language…. the expansion
of language contributes… to the prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international
prominence of American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick
development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates.
This means a computer s default setting for language is American English, although of
course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence
of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American
culture and media, technological advance and the rapid development of communications technology. 64. Indonesian Volcano In 1815 on the island
of Sumbawa in Indonesia, a handsome and long-quiescent mountain named Tambora exploded spectacularly,
killing a hundred thousand people with its blast and associated tsunamis. It was the
biggest volcanic explosion in ten thousand years— 150 times the size of Mount St. Helens,
equivalent to sixty thousand Hiroshima-sized atom bombs. News didn’t travel terribly
fast in those days. In London, The Times ran a small story— actually a letter from a
merchant—seven months after the event. But by this time Tambora’s effects were already
being felt. Thirty-six cubic miles of smoky ash, dust, and grit had diffused through the
atmosphere, obscuring the Sun’s rays and causing the Earth to cool. Sunsets were unusually
but blearily colourful, an effect memorably captured by the artist.J. M. W. Turner, who
could not have been happier, but mostly the world existed under an oppressive, dusky pall.
It was this deathly dimness that inspired the Byron lines above. Spring never came and
summer never warmed: 1816 became known as the year without summer. Crops everywhere
failed to grow. In Ireland a famine and associated typhoid epidemic killed sixty-five thousand
people. In New England, the year became popularly known as Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death.
Morning frosts continued until June and almost no planted seed would grow. Short of fodder,
livestock died or had to be prematurely slaughtered. In every way it was a dreadful year—almost
certainly the worst for farmers in modern times. Yet globally the temperature fell by
only about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Earth’s natural thermostat, as scientists would learn,
is an exceedingly delicate instrument. 65. Malaysia Malaysia is one of the most pleasant,
hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century
glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the
region. Malaysia is also launching it’s biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to
lure 20 million visitors here this year. More than 16 million tourists visited in 2005,
the last year for which complete statistics were available. While the majority of them
were from Asia, mostly neighboring Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei, China, Japan
and India, a growing number of Western travelers are also making their way to this Southeast
Asian tropical paradise. Of the 885,000 travelers from the West, 240,000 were from the United
Kingdom, 265,000 from Australia and 150,000 from the U.S. Any tourist itinerary would
have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers,
which once comprised the world’s tallest buildings and now hold the title of second- tallest.
Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st
floor. Also worth visiting is the Central Market, a pre-war building that was the main
wet market for the city, and has now been transformed into an arts and cultural center.
The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high
ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold-painted statue
of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps.
In Sabah state on Borneo island — not to be confused with Indonesia’s Borneo — you’ll
find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the
top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising
from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest
peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting
and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with
a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds. While you’re
in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful
Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca,
this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples
and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang,
known as the “Pearl of the Orient.” This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts
of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches. 66. Benefits of Honey (1) If you’ve been buying
sports gels to keep you going during your workout, you might want to try honey instead.
According to findings presented today at the annual Experimental Biology conference, honey
delivers a significant performance boost to athletes during strenuous exercise. “Numerous
studies have singled out carbohydrates as a critical nutrient in endurance exercise,”
says principal investigator Richard Kreider of the University of Memphis Exercise and
Sport Nutrition Laboratory. “Most of the studies to date have shown supplementation with glucose
to provide the extra staying power. We were pleased to find that honey, a ‘cocktail’ of
various natural sugars, performed just as well.” The team let nine competitive male
cyclists cycle for 64 kilometers each week for three weeks, feeding them honey, dextrose
gel or a flavored, calorie-free placebo. Participants received 15 grams of that supplement along
with 250 millilitres of water before they raced and then every 16 kilometres while cycling.
Both the honey and the dextrose gel led to better times and more cycling power among
the athletes, as compared with the placebois effects. While the dextrose gel slightly outperformed
honey, the difference was negligible, leading the researchers to conclude that honey can
be a natural and effective carbohydrate source for endurance athletes. 67. Twins UCLA neurology professor Paul Thompson
and his colleagues scanned the brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal
twins. Since identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about half
their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity
was determined genetically in many parts of the brain that are key for intelligence. These
include the parietal lobes, which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and
logic, and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides of the
body. The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI (high-angular
resolution diffusion imaging) — think of an MRI machine on steroids — that takes
scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows
the volume of different tissues in the brain by measuring the amount of water present,
HARDI tracks how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure
the quality of its myelin. “HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also
a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in a specific
direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it diffuses more
broadly, that’s an indication of slower signaling, and lower intelligence.” 68. The Story of Columbus When Christopher
Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D.
1492, the island had already been settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years.
The occupants in Columbus ’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who
lived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million
(the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and
friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreating them. Unfortunately for the Tainos,
they had gold, which the Spanish coveted but didn ’t want to go to the work of mining
themselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population among
individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected
them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus
’s arrival, that original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000,
most of whom died that year of smallpox to bring the population down to 3,000. 69. Electric Vehicle – PEV Here’s a term you’re
going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It’s what you and many
other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you
drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car – your plug-in vehicle. Its big on
board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive
50-100 kilometers through city traffic. When you arrive at work you’ll plug in your car
once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car’s batteries to
the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a
contract with your favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of
power from your car’s batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or
very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor
buys form your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal
for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If,
driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively
small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas,
even biofuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries
so you could complete your journey. Concerns over ‘peak oil’, increasing greenhouse gas
emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five
times as many motor vehicles registered world-wide as there are now, mean that the world’s almost
total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word,
unsustainable. 70. Eye surgery – Blindness Scientists believe
they may have found a way to prevent complications that can arise following cataract surgery,
the world ’s leading cause of blindness. Detailing why complications can occur after
surgery, researchers from the University of East Anglia (UEA) explained that while cataract
surgery works well to restore vision, a few natural lens cells always remain after the
procedure. Over time, the eye ’s wound-healing response leads these cells to spread across
the underside of the artificial lens, which interferes with vision, causing what ’s
known as ‘ posterior capsule opacification ’ or secondary cataract. UEA ’s School
of Biological Sciences academic, Dr Michael Wormstone, who led the study, said: “ Secondary
visual loss responds well to treatment with laser surgery. But as life expectancy increases,
the problems of cataract and posterior capsule opacification will become even greater in
terms of both patient well being and economic burden. It ’s essential that we find better
ways to manage the condition in future.” As a result, researchers are designing new
artificial lenses that can be placed into a capsular bag that stays open, instead of
shrink-wrapping closed, which currently occurs. It is believed that, through the new approach,
fluid in the eye can flow around the artificial lens, therefore diluting and washing away
the cell-signalling molecules that encourage cell re-growth. 71. Autism Autism is a disorder characterized
by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Over the past 40
years, the measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While progress
has been made in understanding some of the factors associated with increased risk and
rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence
to rise so precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars that focusing
solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants, prenatal complications,
or parental education is insufficient to explain why autism prevalence rates have increased
so stunningly. Social and institutional processes likely play an important role. For example,
changes in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism diagnosis
may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have risen. Increased awareness and
social influence have been implicated in the rise of autism and a variety of comparable
disorders, where social processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined
the contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to rising
autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors, resources for diagnosis,
and greater awareness have not been systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health
and inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how individual- and
community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of an autism diagnosis. 72. Books and Television To understand the
final reason why the news marketplace of ideas dominated by television is so different form
the one that emerged in the world dominated by the printing press, it is important to
distinguish the quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness”
experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the reading of words
is automatically modulated by the constant activation of the reasoning centres of the
brain that are used in the process of cocreating the representation of reality the author has
intended. By contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to
trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself – and without
being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought. The simulation of reality accomplished
in the television medium is so astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations
of reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an incremental
change in the way people consume information. Books also convey compelling and vivid representation
of reality, of course. But the reader actively participates in the conjuring of the reality
the book ’s author is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain that
are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the very act of reading printed
words: Words are composed of abstract symbols – letters – that have no intrinsic meaning
themselves until they are strung together into recognisable sequences. Television, by
contrast, present to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of reality – without
requiring the creative collaboration that words have always demanded. 73. Research on Birds- Climate Change As warmer
winter temperatures become more common, one way for some animals to adjust is to shift
their ranges northward. But a new study of 59 North American bird species indicates that
doing so is not easy or quick — it took about 35 years for many birds to move far enough
north for winter temperatures to match where they historically lived. For example, black
vultures have spread northward in the last 35 years and now winter as far north as Massachusetts,
where the minimum winter temperature is similar to what it was in Maryland in 1975. On the
other hand, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker did not alter its range at all despite the
warming trend, possibly because it ’s very specific habitat requirements precluded a
range shift. Both of these scenarios could represent problems for birds, La Sorte said.
Species that do not track changes in climate may wind up at the limits of their physiological
tolerance, or they may lose important habitat qualities, such as favored food types, as
those species pass them by. But they also can’t move their ranges too fast if the habitat
conditions they depend on also tend to lag behind climate. 74. Multi-life Life expectancies have been
rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening.
Gratton and Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than
half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays.
With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system
it is almost certain you won ’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of
decent retirement. For example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that
is 50 per cent of your final salary, and you save 10 per cent of your earnings each year,
they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100-year
life expectancies must recognise they are in for the long haul, and make an early start
arranging their lives accordingly. But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance
the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material
and intangible assets will need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating,
augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will
be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have
to become “re-creation”. 75. Cities How can we design great cities
from scratch if we cannot agree on what makes them great? None of the cities where people
most want to live — such as London, New York, Paris and Hong Kong — comes near to
being at the top of surveys asking which are best to live in. The top three in the most
recent Economist Intelligence Unit ’s liveability ranking, for example, were Melbourne, Vancouver
and Vienna. They are all perfectly pleasant, but great? The first question to tackle is
the difference between liveability and greatness. Perhaps we cannot aspire to make a great city,
but if we attempt to make a liveable one, can it in time become great? There are some
fundamental elements that you need. The first is public space. Whether it is Vienna ’s
Ringstrasse and Prater park, or the beaches of Melbourne and Vancouver, these are places
that allow the city to pause and the citizens to mingle and to breathe, regardless of class
or wealth. Good cities also seem to be close to nature, and all three have easy access
to varied, wonderful landscapes and topographies. A second crucial factor, says Ricky Burdett,
a professor of urban studies at the London School of Economics, is a good transport system.
“Affordable public transport is the one thing which cuts across all successful cities,”
he says. 76. Great Managers What do great managers
actually do? In my research, beginning with a survey of 80,000 managers conducted by the
Gallup Organization and continuing during the past two years with in-depth studies of
a few top performers, I ’ve found that while there are as many styles of management as
there are managers, there is one quality that sets truly great managers apart from the rest:
They discover what is unique about each person and then capitalize on it. Average managers
play checkers, while great managers play chess. The difference? In checkers, all the pieces
are uniform and move in the same way; they are interchangeable. You need to plan and
coordinate their movements, certainly, but they all move at the same pace, on parallel
paths. In chess, each type of piece moves in a different way, and you can ’t play
if you don ’t know how each piece moves. More important, you won ’t win if you don
’t think carefully about how you move the pieces. Great managers know and value the
unique abilities and even the eccentricities of their employees, and they learn how best
to integrate them into a coordinated plan of attack. This is the exact opposite of what
great leaders do. Great leaders discover what is universal and capitalize on it. Their job
is to rally people toward a better future. Leaders can succeed in this only when they
can cut through differences of race, sex, age, nationality, and personality and, using
stories and celebrating heroes, tap into those very few needs we all share. The job of a
manager, meanwhile, is to turn one person ’s particular talent into performance. Managers
will succeed only when they can identify and deploy the differences among people, challenging
each employee to excel in his or her own way. This doesn ’t mean a leader can ’t be
a manager or vice versa. But to excel at one or both, you must be aware of the very different
skills each role requires. 77. Free labor system Americans in the mid-nineteenth
century could point to plenty of examples, real as well as mythical, of self-made men
who by dint of “industry, prudence, perseverance, and good economy” had risen “to competence,
and then to affluence.” With the election of Abraham Lincoln they could point to one
who had risen from a log cabin to the White House. “I am not ashamed to confess that twenty
five years ago I was a hired laborer, mauling rails, at work on a flat-boat—just what
might happen to any poor man’s son!” Lincoln told an audience at New Haven in 1860. But
in the free states a man knows that “he can better his condition . . . there is no such
thing as a freeman being fatally fixed for life, in the condition of a hired laborer.”
“Wage slave” was a contradiction in terms, said Lincoln. “The man who labored for another
last year, this year labors for himself, and next year he will hire others to labor for
him.” If a man “continue through life in the condition of the hired laborer, it is not
the fault of the system, but because of either a dependent nature which prefers it, or improvidence,
folly, or singular misfortune.” The “free labor system,” concluded Lincoln, “opens the
way for all—gives hope to all, and energy, and progress, and improvement of condition
to all.” Sample answer: Wage dependency is only temporary
under the free labor system, as in the 19th center America experienced rapid growth and
is considered as a society of equal opportunity, individuals who practiced the virtues of hard
work and self-discipline could pull himself up and become self- employed or a successful
employer himself. 78. Sunshine Revolution The suburbs of Las
Vegas do not look like the cradle of a revolution. Golden stucco-clad houses stretch for street
after identical street, interspersed with gated communities with names such as Spanish
Oaks and Rancho Bel Air. The sky is the deepest blue, the desert air is clear and the distant
mountains are beautiful. The only sounds are the buzz of a gardener’s hedge trimmer and
a squeaking baby buggy pushed by a power-walking mother. The bright lights of Sin City seem
a very long way away. Yet these quiet streets are being changed by a movement that is gathering
momentum across America and around the world, challenging one of the most fundamental of
economic relationships: the way we use and pay for energy. There are now more than 7,000
homes in Nevada fitted with solar panels to generate their own electricity, and the number
is rising fast. Just five years ago, residential solar power was still a niche product for
the homeowner with a fat wallet and a bleeding heart. Not any more. Technology, politics
and finance have aligned to move it into the mainstream. Solar power has become the fastest-growing
energy source in the US. Sample Answer: Although the suburbs of Las
Vegas don not look like the cradle of a revolution, a moment that challenge one of the most fundamental
of economic relationship in energy consumption has increases the number of solar panels that
used to be a niche product of wealthy homeowners, and solar power has become the fast-growing
energy source in US. 79. Crime rate The Home Office’s periodic
British Crime Survey estimates that the true level of crime (the sorts, anyway, which inform
the official figures) is about four times that which is registered in the annual statistics.
Quite often, especially in the financial services sector, businesses do not report crimes against
themselves for fear of lowering their public image. Many citizens today are not insured
against car theft or property loss (because they cannot afford the premiums) so they have
no incentive to tell the police if they become victims. A steep statistical rise in crime
can sometimes arise not from a real growth in a particular type of conduct but from a
new policing policy — offences of “lewd dancing” rose by about 300 per cent during
12 months in the 19805 in Manchester, but only because the zealous Chief Constable James
Anderton had deployed a great many officers in gay nightclubs. Sometimes the enactment
of a new range of offences or the possibility of committing old offences in a new way (like
computer offences involving fraud and deception) can cause an upward jolt in crime levels.
The figures just released show a startling jump in street robbery but much of this seems
to be a very particular crime: the theft of the now ubiquitous mobile phones. Conversely,
if crimes like joyriding and some assaults are kept out of the categories measured in
the annual statistics, as is the case, the official figures do not reflect even what
is reported to the police as criminal. The way that criminal statistics are compiled
by the Home Office is also relevant. From April 1998, police forces started to count
crime in a way which, according to the government, will give “a more robust statistical measure”.
Under the new rules, crime is recorded as one crime per victim. Some crimes, like assaults,
have always been recorded in this way, so the main impact of the change will be in the
area of property offences. Shop thefts, for example, were the old rules counted offenders,
will now count victims. Multiple thefts from cars in a car park with a barrier were previously
counted as one offence but are now counted as separate offences. 80. Tricks of the Write rs Trade It might
seem a little eccentric but reviewing your work by reading it aloud can help to identify
the woolliest areas. This works best if you perform your reading in a theatrical way,
pausing at the commas and ends of sentences. If you run out of breath during a sentence,
it is probably too long. You ought to be able to convert your writing into a speech in this
way – if it sounds too stilted and convoluted, perhaps you could rework these parts until
they sound fluid. It’s unlikely that your reader will be fooled by the idea that long
words make you sound clever. Cluttering a sentence with too many complicated words can
prevent its meaning from being understood at all. A short word is always preferable
to a long one. Why should anyone choose the word ‘erroneous’ over the word ‘wrong’
in an essay? Usually writers who employ more obscure words are trying to sound impressive,
but can appear pretentious. Direct words enable you to control what you are saying, and are
not necessarily babyish, but the most appropriate ones for the job. When you read you’re writing
aloud, you will notice that the key stress comes at the end of your sentence. It is therefore
most effective to end with a short and emphatic word to secure your point. Try to resist the
impulse to waffle at the end of your sentence by trailing off into qualifying clauses. It
might be worth relocating the clause to the beginning of the sentence or losing it altogether
if you feel that it adds little to its meaning. Your sentences might be the most grammatically
perfect in the world, but still cause your writing to sound wrong if you have misjudged
its tone. A colloquial style, which uses slang and exclamations, is an inappropriately chatty
tone for an essay. However, style can be equally jarring if your vocabulary is too formal or
ambitious for its context. It is much more impressive to make complicated points using
simple language and grammar.

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